What is DIABETES MELLITUS?
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly known as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by a high blood sugar level over a prolonged period of time.
Symptoms often include frequent urination, increased thirst and increased appetite. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many health complications.
Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death.
Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, damage to the nerves, damage to the eyes and cognitive impairment.
SymptomsFrequent urination, increased thirst, increased hunger
ComplicationsDiabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, heart disease, stroke, pain/pins and needles in hands and/or feet, chronic kidney failure, foot ulcers, cognitive impairment, gastroparesis
Risk factorsType 1: Family history
Type 2: Obesity, lack of exercise, genetics Diagnostic methodHigh blood sugar
TreatmentHealthy diet, physical exercise
Frequency463 million (8.8%)
Deaths4.2 million (2019
Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin, or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced. There are three main types of diabetes mellitus:
Type 1 diabetes results from failure of the pancreas to produce enough insulin due to loss of beta cells.This form was previously referred to as “insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus” (IDDM) or “juvenile diabetes”.The loss of beta cells is caused by an autoimmune response. The cause of this autoimmune response is unknown.
Type 2 diabetes begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly. As the disease progresses, a lack of insulin may also develop.This form was previously referred to as “non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus” (NIDDM) or “adult-onset diabetes”. The most common cause is a combination of excessive body weight and insufficient exercise.
Gestational diabetes is the third main form, and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood sugar levels.
Type 1 diabetes must be managed with insulin injections. Prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes involves maintaining a healthy diet, regular physical exercise, a normal body weight, and avoiding use of tobacco.
Type 2 diabetes may be treated with medications such as insulin sensitizers with or without insulin.
Control of blood pressure and maintaining proper foot and eye care are important for people with the disease.
Insulin and some oral medications can cause low blood sugar.
Weight loss surgery in those with obesity is sometimes an effective measure in those with type 2 diabetes.
Gestational diabetes usually resolves after the birth of the baby.
NORMAL INSULIN METABOLISM:-