DIABETES & ITS TYPES
Diabetes mellitus, commonly known as diabetes, is a metabolic disease that causes high blood sugar. The hormone insulin moves sugar from the blood into your cells to be stored or used for energy. With diabetes, your body either doesn’t make enough insulin or can’t effectively use the insulin it does make.
Untreated high blood sugar from diabetes can damage your nerves, eyes, kidneys, and other organs.
There are a few different types of diabetes:
1. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. The immune system attacks and destroys cells in the pancreas, where insulin is made. About 10 percent of people with diabetes have this type.
2. Type 2 diabetes occurs when your body becomes resistant to insulin, and sugar builds up in your blood.
3. Prediabetes occurs when your blood sugar is higher than normal, but it’s not high enough for a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes.
4. Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar during pregnancy. Insulin-blocking hormones produced by the placenta cause this type of diabetes.
Note:- A rare condition called diabetes insipid-us is not related to diabetes mellitus, although it has a similar name. It’s a different condition in which your kidneys remove too much fluid from your body.
The general symptoms of diabetes include:
Sores that don’t heal
SYMPTOMS IN MEN
In addition to the general symptoms of diabetes, men with diabetes may have a decreased sex drive, erectile dysfunction (ED), and poor muscle strength.
SYMPTOMS IN WOMEN
Women with diabetes can also have symptoms such as urinary tract infections, yeast infections, and dry, itchy skin.
Anyone who has symptoms of diabetes or is at risk for the disease should be tested. Women are routinely tested for gestational diabetes during their second or third trimesters of pregnancy.
Blood tests to diagnose prediabetes and diabetes:
1. The fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test measures your blood sugar after you’ve fasted for 8 hours.
2. The A1C test provides a snapshot of your blood sugar levels over the previous 3 months.
PRECAUTIONS & CARE
Eating the right types of foods can both control your blood sugar and help you lose any excess weight.
Your blood sugar level rises or falls based on the types of foods you eat. Starchy or sugary foods make blood sugar levels rise rapidly. Protein and fat cause more gradual increases.
Your medical team may recommend that you limit the amount of carbohydrates you eat each day. You’ll also need to balance your carbohydrate intake with your insulin doses. Carb counting is an important part of eating for type 2 diabetes. A dietitian can help you figure out how many grams of carbohydrates to eat at each meal
Work with a dietitian who can help you design a diabetes meal plan. Getting the right balance of protein, fat, and carbs can help you control your blood sugar.
Consider making an eating plan with the help of a dietitian or nutritionist. They’ll ensure that your diet has the right mix of macro-nutrients.
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